Technical education arose and developed slowly compared to classical schools, i.e. universities and grammar schools. The first technical schools were mining schools (Jáchymov - 1716, Banská Štiavnica - 1725) and military technical schools for civil engineers.
The first technical university was the famous École
Polytechnique in Paris, established in 1794. A secondary school leaving
certificate was necessary for students to enter this school. The students
were prepared for military and civil service. The school put emphasis on
teaching theoretical subjects (mathematics, descriptive geometry, physics).
The organization chart and educational program of École Polytechnique
as a model for polytechnic schools in 19th-century Europe.
In 1806, following the project of F.J. Gerstner (professor of mathematics at the Prague University), based on the model of École Polytechnique, the Institute of Engineering Education was transformed into Prague Polytechnic. At that time Prague Polytechnic was the only school of higher technical education in the Austrian monarchy. Many famous people worked and taught at Prague Polytechnic. The best known of them was Christian Doppler, professor of mathematics and practical geometry from 1837 to 1847.
In 1863 Prague Polytechnic was transformed into the Technical University. At that time studies were divided into 4 branches: mechanical engineering, chemistry, civil engineering and architecture. In 1869 the Technical University was divided into two universities - German Technical University and Czech Technical University.
The German Technical University in Prague was abolished in October 1945 (the institutes with their equipment were incorporated in Czech Technical University in Prague.)
In 1805 Emperor Franz I asked the imperial commission on education to prepare the establishment of a technical university in Vienna. In December 1814 Johann Joseph Prechtl (former professor of mathematics at a naval school in Trieste) was named director of the newly established Technical Institute. Teaching began in November 1815 with 3 professors and 47 students in adapted quarters. The Institute was divided into a technical school and a commercial schools.
In 1865, the first reform was completed. The commercial
school was abolished and the technical school was divided into four parts:
school of engineering, school of civil engineering, school of mechanical
engineering and school of technical chemistry. In 1866 the first rector
was elected. In 1872, the Technical Institute was transformed into Imperial-Royal
Technical University. Since 1975 the school has been called
University of Technology.
In 1817, secondary technical school was established in Lemberg. It was divided into a technical school and a commercial schools. In 1844 the school was transformed into Technical Academy and Florian Schindler, the first director of Brno Technical College, was appointed the director of the Academy. In 1848, the building of the school was destroyed by fire and some professors moved to the newly established Brno Technical College. In 1877 the Academy was transformed into Technical University. The school exists as Lviv State University "Lvivska Polytechnica" now.