The Development of the Technical Education in Europe

    Technical education arose and developed slowly compared to classical schools, i.e. universities and grammar schools. The first technical schools were mining schools (Jáchymov - 1716, Banská Štiavnica - 1725) and military technical schools for civil engineers.

    The first technical university was the famous École Polytechnique in Paris, established in 1794. A secondary school leaving certificate was necessary for students to enter this school. The students were prepared for military and civil service. The school put emphasis on teaching theoretical subjects (mathematics, descriptive geometry, physics). The organization chart and educational program of École Polytechnique served as a model for polytechnic schools in 19th-century Europe.

Technical education in Austro-Hungarian Empire

Prague Technical University

The beginnings of the technical education in Prague are closely related with the name of Ch.J. Willenberg. Christian Joseph Willenberg (1655 - 1731), a native of Silesia, received his mathematical and technical knowledge through service in the French army. He settled in Prague and he addressed a petition to Emperor Leopold I in January 1705, requesting to begin teaching engineering sciences. Twelve years later, the Institute of Engineering Education was established in 1717. The beginnings were modest. Willenberg began teaching only 12 students in his private flat. The number of students reached more than 200 in 1779 but fell to only 106 in 1806.

    In 1806, following the project of F.J. Gerstner (professor of mathematics at the Prague University), based on the model of École Polytechnique, the Institute of Engineering Education was transformed into Prague Polytechnic. At that time Prague Polytechnic was the only school of higher technical education in the Austrian monarchy. Many famous people worked and taught at Prague Polytechnic. The best known of them was Christian Doppler, professor of mathematics and practical geometry from 1837 to 1847.

    In 1863 Prague Polytechnic was transformed into the Technical University. At that time studies were divided into 4 branches: mechanical engineering, chemistry, civil engineering and architecture. In 1869 the Technical University was divided into two universities - German Technical University and Czech Technical University.

    The German Technical University in Prague was abolished in October 1945 (the institutes with their equipment were incorporated in Czech Technical University in Prague.)

Vienna Technical University

    In 1805 Emperor Franz I asked the imperial commission on education to prepare the establishment of a technical university in Vienna. In December 1814 Johann Joseph Prechtl (former professor of mathematics at a naval school in Trieste) was named  director of the newly established Technical Institute. Teaching began in November 1815 with 3 professors and 47 students in adapted quarters. The Institute was divided into a technical school and a commercial schools.

    In 1865, the first reform was completed. The commercial school was abolished and the technical school was divided into four parts: school of engineering, school of civil engineering, school of mechanical engineering and school of technical chemistry. In 1866 the first rector was elected. In 1872, the Technical Institute was transformed into Imperial-Royal Technical University. Since 1975 the school has been called Vienna University of Technology.

Technical University Graz

    The Technical College was established in 1811 in connection with museum (Joanneum). In 1827, the Department of Technical and Practical Mathematics was established. In 1864 it was transformed into Technical University.

Technical Academy in Lemberg (Lvov)

    In 1817,  secondary technical school was established in Lemberg. It was divided into a technical school and a commercial schools. In 1844 the school was transformed into Technical Academy and Florian Schindler, the first director of Brno Technical College, was appointed the director of the Academy. In 1848, the building of the school was destroyed by fire and some professors moved to the newly established Brno Technical College. In 1877 the Academy was transformed into Technical University. The school exists as  Lviv State University "Lvivska Polytechnica" now.